Chapter 22 and 23 Quiz Hints

1. Be able to explain the 4 steps that explain how natural selection works. Be able to do it in 2 steps as well. See the handout “Wallace-Darwin Theory of Natural Selection.”

2. Be able to describe the differences between how the mechanism for Lamarckian evolution is different from Darwinian Natural Selection. Make sure you realize both Lamarck and Darwin believed in evolution, they simply differed on the mechanism that caused it.

3. Be able to describe the paradigm that dominated western culture in 1750.

4. Explain the three paradigm shifts that James Hutton was responsible for. Be able to explain why he came to these new ideas.

5. Be able to describe the basic steps that led to Darwin’s own paradigm shift. Make sure you can cite the specific things that shaped his thinking. See the lecture, “Darwin’s Road to Discovery,” for details.

6. Be able to list, explain and give an example of each of the 5 evidences of evolution (pages 423-425). Pay particular attention to the following:
•Be able to explain biogeography and why it is such a powerful piece of evidence.
•Explain homology and homologous structures and why they are good evidence.
•What is a vestigial organ and why is it a piece of evidence?
•What is meant by “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”? Be able to define each word.
•How can molecular biology help us validate the theory of evolution?

7. Go over my Genetics Primer and be familiar with all the terms.
Know the meaning of each of these:
•Locus (loci)- know the word derivation as well.
•Phenotype- know the word derivation as well.

8. Be able to explain the significance of the Modern Synthesis. What is it and how is its view of evolution different from the original Darwinian view? Be sure to know the new definition of evolution, the distinction between microevolution and macroevolution, and the fact the evolution is now seen to act on populations rather than individuals.