Chapters 12 & 13 Test Hints

Scantron Portion of the Test:
The test is basically on mitosis and meiosis. Know both processes completely and thoroughly. Be able to follow four chromosomes (2 homologous pair) going through the whole process and identify them at any stage.

Know the definitions of all the confusing and similarly named terms like centromere, centriole, centrosome, chromosome, chromatin, sister chromatids, homologous chromosomes, etc.

Know Prophase I of meiosis very well since a lot of important things are happening during this stage of meiosis and there is important terminology you need to know. Know the meanings of synapsis, tetrad, chiasmata, crossing over, etc.

Know the cell cycle and what happens at each stage: G1, S, G2, Mitosis, Cytokinesis.
Be able to count the number of chromosomes at any time of the cycle or during any phase of meiosis or mitosis. Realize that between the S part of interphase and part way through mitosis and meiosis, there are actually twice the diploid number of chromosomes.

Go over the Cliffs Notes book. Take the quiz in the book. Know the answers to the quiz. Make sure you understand the answer to the meiosis free response question in the book ( all three parts ). You will not be expected to do a free response question for this exam, but you may be asked multiple choice questions that pertain to this question.

Go over my PowerPoint Lectures.

Check out the mitosis animations and meiosis animations in the homework section of the website. They are all very different from each other; find the one that works best for you as a learner and review it.

Be able to describe similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis (page 234). The PBS website does a nice job in reviewing the basic concepts but the book (page 234) or CD ROM animations of each process are more thorough.

*Read the section in the book on the "Origins of Genetic Variation" (pages 235-237). Know the reason we have meiosis and therefore sexual reproduction. Know the three different ways genetic variation arises from sexual reproduction. Don’t just memorize the three ways, understand them.