Chapter 2 & 3 Chemistry Review

The following is the information you should know for the quiz. Items with asterisks are of particular importance for the AP Exam. Use Chapters 2 & 3 from your book, the student study guide, and the CDROM to study these questions.

1. Examine the hierarchy of biological order in figure 2.1. Be aware of the levels (not necessary to memorize).

2. Which 4 elements make up 96% of living matter?

3. What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass? (CDROM, Activity 2.2, fun activity to test your knowledge)

4. What is an isotope?

5. What is a radioactive isotope?

6. What is a covalent bond? (See CDROM, Activity 2.3, great visual animation)
Be able to illustrate.

7. What is an ionic bond? (See CDROM, Activity 2.4, basic visual animation)
Be able to illustrate.

8. Distinguish between a nonpolar covalent bond and a polar covalent bond.
Be sure to be able to give an example of each.

*9. The Hydrogen Bond: (see CDROM, Activity 2.5, excellent visual animation)
a. Be able to describe how a hydrogen bond is formed. Be able to illustrate.

b. Be able to describe two important biological molecules that use hydrogen bonds to help form their shape.

*10. Read and become familiar with the section “A molecule’s biological function is related to its shape”(pg. 32). Read and examine figures 2.16 and 2.17.

11. Read the last section in chapter 2, “Chemical Reactions make and break chemical bonds”(pg. 32 & 33). Be able to diagram a simple chemical reaction. Label the reactants “reactants” and products “products”, i.e. know which is which.

*12. Examine CDROM activity 3.1. Be able to explain how the polarity of water contributes to hydrogen bonding which in turn explains the surface tension of water.

13. What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?

14. Be able to explain how water helps moderate the temperatures on earth.
15. Be able to explain why lakes and oceans don’t freeze?

16. Water is the solvent of life. Be able to define the following terms: solvent, solution, solute, aqueous solution.

*17. Be able to distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic. What can help you remember which is which?
•What does “hydro” mean?
•What does “phobic” mean?
•What does “philic” mean?

18. Be able to discuss the basics of acid-base chemistry. What pH is acidic, basic, and neutral? What causes something to be acidic or basic? (See CDROM, Activity 3.2 & 3.3, excellent animation, great explanation)

*19. Most biological systems are generally in aqueous solutions with a pH of 7. What helps prevent radical shifts in pH?